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Just to get an idea, about indian stamps & coins , I have given some links, below :- Stamps of INDIA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uX7dDzEJBzo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TgYXEkOFo34 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y5XyoHes3Uw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=imImagkT6z0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PV4cPXX6cxs Most expensive coins from INDIA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KkEYDM_iQuw http://www.todywallaauctions.com/Results.aspx https://www.numisbids.com/n.php?p=sale&sid=406&cid=&pg=21&search= https://www.livehistoryindia.com/snapshort-histories/2017/11/10/jahangirs-scandalous-coins Sultanate of Delhi The Northern portion mainly Delhi was ruled by local dynasties like Tomara from 736 to 1152 and then Chauhan (Cahamana) from c. 1150 to 1192. Silver Drachm coins are known from Tomara and Chauhan dynasties. Muhammad Shahab ud-Din [or simply Muhammad Ghori] of Ghurid Empire (capital at Ghazna, Afghanistan) attacked the north-western regions of the Indian subcontinent many times. The first time he was defeated in the First Battle of Tarain in present-day Haryana, India by Prithviraj III Chauhan. Later under his command, Qutb-ud-din Aibeg sacked Delhi in 1192. Muhammad Ghori established the first real Muslim state in North India. Upon Sultan Muhammad Ghori's death in 1206, Qutb-ud-din Aibeg, after a brief power struggle, succeeded in establishing himself as ruler of the empire in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India; Ghori's Central Asian possessions had been captured by none other than the Mongol warlord, Genghis Khan. Thus Ghauri's prediction proved true. After his assassination, his Empire was divided amongst his slaves. Most notably: Qutb-ud-din Aibak became ruler of Delhi in 1206, establishing the Sultanate of Delhi, which marked the start of the Slave dynasty of India. Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha became ruler of Multan. Taj-ud-Din Yildiz became ruler of Ghazni. Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji became ruler of Bengal. GHULYAM (Slaves) or Mumluk Dynasty Qutb ud-Din Aibeg ibn Mu'izz............................1206 - 1210 Qutb-ud-din was a slave and was purchased by General Muhammad Ghori governor of Ghazni in the past. Inspired by the Minaret of Jam in Afghanistan and wishing to surpass it, Qutb ud-din Aibeg, commenced construction of the Qutb Minar in Delhi in 1193, but could only complete its base. His successor, Iltutmish, added three more stories and, in 1386, Firuz Shah Tughluq constructed the fifth and the last story. Qutb-ud-din Aibeg's tomb is located behind Anarkali Bazaar, Lahore. Aram Shah S/o Qutb ud-Din...............................1210 - 1211 According to some, he was Aibak's son, but Minhaj-us-Siraj distinctly writes that Qutub-ud-din only had three daughters. Abul Fazl has made the "astonishing statement" that he was the Sultan's brother. A modern writer has hazarded the opinion that "he was no relation of Qutub-ud-din" but was selected as his successor as he was available on the spot. In fact, there were no fixed rules governing the succession to the Crown in the Turkish State. Shams ud-Din Iltutmish al-Qutbi ibn Yalam Khan..........1211 - 29 Apr 1236 He was the slave of Qutb ud-Din Aibeg and later married to one of his daughter. He was Governor of Badaun and was called by administrative and military elite to defeated Aram in the plain of Jud near Delhi in 1211. Coins were struck first time by this dynasty in the name of Iltutmish in gold, silver, billion and copper. In Bengal, the issues were mostly in silver, with a few special gold coins. On his various coins, Iltutmish's name is spelt in four different ways. His usual titles on the Tankas struck outside Bengal are: al-sultan al-azam sham al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar Iltutmish al-sultan. Caliph al-Mustansir are also cited on some coins. Rukn ud-Din Firuz Shah S/o Shams ud-Din Iltutmish...May 1236 - 20 Nov 1236 Rukn ud-din's reign was short. With Iltutmish's widow Shah Turkaan for all practical purposes running the government, Rukn ud-din abandoned himself to the pursuit of personal pleasure and debauchery, to the considerable outrage of the citizenry. On November 09, 1236, Shah Turkaan was killed and later on 20 Nov Rukn ud-Din was also assassinated. No gold coins of this ruler are as yet known. The silver Tankas from Delhi are rare while Lakhnauti silver Tankas are very rare. Billion jitals were struck in Delhi and Budaun. No copper coins are known for this ruler. The ruler's title on most of the silver Tankas is: al-sultan al-azam rukn al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar firuz shah bin sultan. Jalalat al-Din Radiyya (fem) D/o Shams ud-Din Iltutmish.1236 - 15 Oct 1240 Only one gold coin of Radiyya has so far been published in Bengal style. Her title on Delhi silver Tankas is radiyyat al-Din which are considered rare while the Lakhnauti silver Tankas with title: jalalat al-din are extremely rare. Caliph al-Mustansir are also cited on her coins. Billion jitals continued to be struck in both Delhi and Budaun, but later bull and horseman type were discontinued. Mu'izz ad-Din Bahram Shah S/o Shams ud-Din Iltutmish....1240 - 15 May 1242 Tankas are known for this ruler in gold from Delhi as extremely rare and in silver from Delhi and Lakhnauti as rare to very rare. Caliph al-Mustansir are also cited on his coins. Billion jitals continued to be struck in both Delhi and Budaun. The bull and horseman type was struck again at Delhi and other Delhi types are notable for having the ruler's name above the horseman. The ruler's title on most of the Tankas is: al-sultan al-azam mu'izz al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar bahram shah bin al-sultan. Ala ud-Din Masud Shah S/o Rukn ud-Din Firuz.............1242 - 11 Jun 1246 Gold Tankas are rare for this ruler from Lakhnauti in Bengal and Delhi. Caliph al-Mustansir are also cited on his early coins and later Caliph Mustasim from AH 641 (1243). Billion jitals continued to be struck in both Delhi and Budaun as well as at another mint in northern India, possibly Uch. Some of the bull and horseman type coins have date in Samvat era. No copper coins are known. The ruler's title on most of the Tankas is: al-sultan al-azam ala al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar masud shah ibn al-sultan. He was deposed. Nasir ud-Din Mahmud S/o Shams ud-Din Iltutmish..........1246 - 19 Feb 1266 As a ruler, he was known to be very religious, spending most of his time in prayer and renown for aiding the poor and the distressed. However, it was actually his Deputy Sultan or Naib, Ghiyas ud din Balban, who primarily dealt with the state affairs. After Mahmud's death in 1266, Balban rose to power as Mahmud had no male heir. Coins were struck in his name in gold, silver, billion and copper in same mints as above. In Bengal, Tankas were struck in the name of caliph al-Mustansir (at Delhi and Lakhnauti) and later caliph Mustasim (at Delhi only). A single half Tanka in silver is known as well as several one-tweth Tankas (mashas). In billion bull and horseman type coins was discontinued. Copper coins are very scarce. consisting mainly of small adlis. Some heavier copper coins are known but is not certain whether they are to be attributed to this ruler or to Nasir al-Din Mahmud Damghan of Madura. The ruler's title on most of the Tankas is: al-sultan al-azam nasir al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar mahmud shah bin (or ibn) al-sultan. Ghiyath ud-Din Mahmud (Balban) Ulugh Khan...............1266 - 1287 He was son of a Turkish noble of the Ilbari tribe, but as a child was captured by Mongols and sold as a slave at Ghazni. Khwaja, Jamaluddin Basri of Baghdad. Later, he was bought by Sultan Iltutmish in 1232 CE, who at the orders of his own master, Qutbuddin Aibak, released him from slavery and brought him up in a manner befitting a prince. He was liberally educated. He introduced the Persian culture of zaminbos that is lying flat on one's face before the emperor. He was first appointed as Khasdar (king's personal attendant) by the Sultan. He became the head of the 'Chalissa', a group of forty Turkish nobles of the state. After the overthrow of Razia Sultana he made rapid strides in the subsequent reigns. He was initially the Prime Minister of Sultan Nasir ud din Mahmud from 1246 to 1266 and married his sister, but Balban declared himself the Sultan of Delhi after the previous sultan Nasir ud din Mahmud's death because Sultan Nasir ud din Mahmud had no male heir. Sultan Balban ascended the throne in 1266 at the age of sixty with the title of Ghyas ud din Balban. During his reign, Balban ruled with an iron fist. He broke up the 'Chihalgani', a group of the forty most important nobles in the court. He tried to establish peace and order in the country of India. He built many outposts in areas where there was crime and garrisoned them with soldiers. Balban wanted to make sure everyone was loyal to the crown by establishing an efficient espionage system. Sultan Balban had a strong and well-organized spy system. Balban struck coins in gold, silver, billion and copper. The gold and silver tankas are usually well struck. The silver Tankas were also struck in Alwar, Sultanur and at a hitherto unidentified mint that has provisionally been read as Nimur. A few silver one-twelfth tankas are known. Balban was the last Sultan to use the horseman design on billion issue. Such coins are very rare and were soon replaced by a new, bilingual type, containing around 0.3 grams of silver. These coins may have been intended as 2 jitals (dugani) pieces, going 24 to the silver Tanka. In copper, he revived the 40-rati piece (paika) 4.6g with its rare half 2.3g. He also issued a large number of small adlis ranging in weight from 0.65 to around 2.3 grams. The ruler's title on most of the Tankas is: al-sultan al-azam ghiyath al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar balban shah al-sultan. Mu'izz ud-Din Kai-Kubad S/o Bugra Khan..................1287 - 14 Oct 1290 During Balban's reign, it was difficult for Balban to find an heir to the throne. His first choice, his son Muhammad (Khan Shahid), died before he could succeed Balban, his tomb stands close to Balban's tomb. Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Bughra Khan (Balban's second son married to the daughter of Nasir ud-Din Mahmud), refused the throne as he was already the governor of Bengal. Eventually, Balban chose his grandson, Kay Khusroe, to be his successor. However, when Balban died, the chiefs chose for Mu'izz ud-Din Kai-Kubad to become ruler instead. Throughout his reign, Mu'izz ud-Din Kai-Kubad (being still young at the time) ignored all state affairs. After four years, he suffered from a paralytic stroke and was later on murdered in 1290 by a Khilji chief. His three year old son, Kaiumarth (Kayumars), succeeded him. During Kai-Kubad's reign, gold and silver Tankas of usual type were struck in Delhi. In addition, there are some extremely rare one-third, one-sixth and one-twelfth Tankas. In billion, the only issue was a 3-gani bilingual coin. Copper paikas and adlis were also struck. The ruler's title on most of the Tankas is: al-sultan al-azam mu'izz al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar kaiqubad al-sultan. Shams ad-Din Kaiumarth S/o Mu'izz ud-Din Kai-Kubad.............1290 Kaiumarth' guardian, Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji, eventually dethrone Kaiumarth and declared himself king, thus bringing an end to the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi. The coins of this ephemeral pretender are very rare. Several silver Tankas of the standard type are known and a few copper coin. No gold or billion coins yet came to light. The ruler's title on most of the Tankas is: al-sultan al-azam shams al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar kayumarth. Jalalat al-Din Radiyya coinage AH 634-637 (1236-1240) Goron D105 / R873 / NW162-163 / T393 / D329 Billion Jital. Year: ND (1236-1240). Weight: 3.77g (3.60g). Metal: Billion. Diameter: 15.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Delhi. Obverse: al-sultan al-mu'azzam radiyya al-din bint al-sultan. Reverse: Horseman to right. Mintage: N/A. Ruler: Jalalat al-Din RADIYYA (RAZIYYA) bint Shams al-Din Iltutmish. Note: Scarce. Ghiyath ud-Din Mahmud (Balban) coinage AH 664-686 (1266-1287) Goron D157 / NW241 Silver Tanka. Year: ND (1266-1286). Weight: 10.82g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 27.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin, but reverse side 20% rotated. Mint: Hadrat Delhi. Obverse: al-sultan al-a'zam ghiyath al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzzafar balban al-sultan. Reverse: al-imam al-must'asim amir al-mu'minin. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 664-675, 678 and 684-685 (1266-1277, 1279 and 1285-1286). Ruler: Ghiyas-ud-Din BALBAN. Note: Common. Obverse legend within single square in circle. Mint and date in margin. Usually two dots exists on each side but varieties exist with one or more dots in left and right segments. Mu'izz ud-Din Kai-Kubad coinage AH 686-689 (1287-1290) Goron D178 / R954 / NW258 Silver Tanka. Year: ND (1287-1290). Weight: 10.59g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 29.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Hadrat Delhi. Obverse: al-sultan al-a'zam mu'izz al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar kaiqubad al-sultan. Reverse: al-imam al-must'asim amir al-mu'minin. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 686-689 (1287-1290). Ruler: Mu’izz al-Din KAIQUBAD bin Bughra Khan bin Ghiyas ud din Balban. Note: Common. This is the only silver Tanka known for this ruler. KHALJI (Gharzai Dynasty) Jalal ud-Din Firuz Shah Khalji S/o Qaim Shah....13 Jul 1290 - 21 Jul 1296 He built his capital at Kilughari, a few miles from the city of Delhi. Ala-ud-din was also responsible for a successful raid in to Deccan as Governor of Kara under his uncle. While Ala ud-Din was returning from there with the spoils of victory, Jalal-ud-Din Firuz hurried to Kara to meet him. Eventually Jalal-ud-Din Firuz was murdered by his nephew, Ala ud-Din. Gold and silver Tankas of standard type continued to be struck at Delhi during the reign of this ruler, and they continued to quote the caliph al-Mustasim. A few one-twelfth tankas in silver are also known. In billion, a bilingual jital was struck. A few light-weight specimens of this type are known, but they may well be contemporary forgeries. Copper paikas were struck at usual weight, and NW lists a coin at round half that weight that may have been intended as a half paika. Copper adlis were also struck. Ruler's title on most of the Tankas is: al-sultan al-azam jalal al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar firuz shah al-sultan. Rukn ud-Din Ibrahim Shah S/o Jalal ud-Din Firuz....Jul 1296 - Nov 1296 Malika Jahan, the widow of Jalal-ud-Din Firuz, put her younger son Rukn ud-Din Khilji on the throne. Ala ud-Din quickly marched on Delhi from Kara. He entered Delhi with his uncle's head on a pike and proclaimed himself the King of Delhi. The short reign of Ibrahim produced coins in all four metal. He was deposed. His coins are all scarce to extremely rare. Only one gold Tanka has so far been published. The Tankas are notable fir including the name of the ruler's father, Firuz, on the reverse, with a short religious formula but no caliph. A single billion type of 32 rati is known, which may have been intended as a jital. In copper there are paikas of 40 rati and adlis. The metrology is thus as for preceding reigns. Ruler's title: al-sultan al-azam rukn al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar ibrahim shah al-sultan bin al-sultan al-azam jalal al-dunya wa'l din abu'l firuz shah nasir amir al-muminin. Ala ud-Din Muhammad Shah I S/o Masud............03 Oct 1296 - 03 Jan 1316 Ala ud-Din Sikandar Sani Muhammad Shah is also noted in history for being one of the few rulers to repeatedly defeat the warring Mongols and thereby saving India from plundering raids and attacks. He was the nephew and son in law of Jalal-ud-Din Firuz Shah. His father Masud was the brother of Firuz Shah. The last Mongol invasion took place in 1307-1308 under Iqbalmand. He had just about managed to cross the Indus when Ala ud-Din Khilji’s armies overtook them and put them all to the sword. But he did not stop there, Ala-ud-Din Khilji had to be sure that the Mongols would never come back. The only way to do that was to attack them, he sent plundering armies under the veteran general Ghazi Malik to Kandahar, Ghazni and Kabul. The Mongols were already so much in awe of him that they did not even bother to defend their own territories against him. These offensives effectively crippled the Mongol line of control leading to India until the arrival of Timur Lane. About the close of his reign Ala ud-Din Khilji had prepared an expedition of 10,000 men under Ghazi Malik (later Ghiyath ud-Din Tughluq) to go to Debalpur to fight with the Chagatai Khanate Mongols. Ghazi Malik was thus enabled to go and secure Multan, Uch and Sindh for himself, especially as Ala ud-Dín’s sons proved incapable and caused confusion in the affairs of the kingdom. The coinage of Muhammad Khalji is the most copious of the whole Delhi series. His campaigns into the Deccan enabled him to bring back vast quantities of booty. Gold and silver Tankas were struck in large numbers from three named mints: Delhi, Dar al-Islam (possibly the old Delhi college had the mint set up or Ranthambhor, which was captured in AH 700 and apparently called by this name) and Deogir (started in AH 714 and later renamed as Daulatbad). There are also some square Tankas in both metals which do not show a mint-name but might be struck somewhere in the south. Ala ud-Din Muhammad moved his capital to new Delhi at Siri, a few miles north of the old city. Some new legend appears on the reverse of his coin with Ala ud-Din Muhammad calling himself sikandar al-thani (Alexander the second), yamin al-khilafa (the right hand of the Caliphate) and nasir amir al-muminin (helper of the Commander of the Faithful). Ruler's title on most of the Tankas is: al-sultan al-azam ala al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar muhammad shah al-sultan. Shihab ud-Din Umar S/o Ala ud-Din...................Jan 1316 - Apr 1316 The coin of this ephemeral ruler are rare to extremely rare. Tankas in gold and silver are known with the ruler's titles on the obverse and the sikandar al-thani legend on the reverse, somewhat inappropriate for a child of five or six! After Alauddin died, his army commander Malik Kafur, attempted to install Shihab al-Din Umar, as sultan with himself as the child's step-father and regent. However, Alauddin's third son, Mubarak Khan, managed to have Malik Khafur murdered, deposed Umar and installed himself as Sultan Qutb al-Din Mubarak. In billion only the 6-gani type is known, dated both AH 715 and 716. No copper coins are known for this ruler. Ruler's title: al-sultan al-azam shihab al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar umar shah al-sultan. Qutb ud-Din Mubarak Shah I S/o Ala ud-Din...........Apr 1316 - Jun 1320 Qutb ud-Din, at the age of 18, was originally appointed regent to his younger six-year old brother, Shihab ud-Din Umar. Within two months, Qutb ud-Din blinded his brother and ascended the throne. Qutb ud-Din was murdered by Khusrau Khan in 1320, this effectively ended the Khilji dynasty. Khusrau Khan was a Hindu slave of the Makwana sect in Gujarat who resented his forcible conversion to Islam. The coins of Mubarak were struck in all four metals and is noted for its variety and for the titles he gave himself. According to his mint-master, Pheru, he created 44 different denominations, comprising more than 70 types during his four year reign. The largest of these is said to have been a gold 200 tola piece and the smallest a copper coin weighting less than a gram. Many of these types are not known to have survived. For the first couple of years of the reign the coinage was round but from AH 718, it was struck on square planchets. Ruler's title: al-sultan al-azam qutb al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar mubarak shah al-sultan bin al-sultan (sikandar al-zaman yamin al-khilafat nasir amir al-muminin as sultan ledend or al-wathiq billah amir al-muminin as imam legend). Mubarak, however, was not an able ruler. He reigned for four short years, the sultanate was left in disarray, and a few short-lived sultans later, it was ripe for takeover by Ghazi Malik Tughluq. Shams al-Din Mahmud (pretender)................................1318 Only a few coins of this ephemeral pretender are known. They comprise a single gold Tanka and some billion coins. While it is though that Mahmud was proclaimed king in Delhi when Mubarak was in Deccan. The histories also state that the plot was to assassinate Mubarak in Deccan. The leader of the conspiracy was Asad al-Din (Adad al-Din?) an uncle of Muhammad Khalji. It is uncertain whether Asad al-Din intended to seize the throne himself or put someone else on the throne with the name of Shams al-Din Mahmud. From the ruler's title: al-sultan al-azam shams al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar mahmud shah al-sultan sikandar al-zaman adad al-khilafa nasir amir al-muminin, it clearly indicates that Asad (Adad ?) may have intended himself as the next ruler. Nasir ud-Din Khusrau Khan Barwari (usurper).........Jun 1320 - Oct 1320 He began to bestow undue favors on mischievous people and wasted public money. The Hindus began to join him in large number. Seeing this state of things, Ghazi Malik’s son Fakhr Malik left Multan secretly and joined his father, informing him of what was happening at Delhi. Then, father and son, being both brave soldiers, collected the forces from Sindh and Multan and hastened to Delhi to help the Muslims against the Hindus. Arriving near Delhi with 3,000 veteran soldiers, they engaged in battle with the army of Khusrau Khan, and defeated them. Then making their way into Delhi they again defeated Khusrau Khan in battle and he fled away. Gold and silver Tankas are known for this ruler from Delhi and Deogir, with silver being rarer than gold. Three types of billion coins are also known as 12, 6 and 2 gani values. Copper coins are very scarce and come in at least two weights. The ruler's title: al-sultan al-azam nasir al-dunya wa'l din khusru shah al-sultan al-wathiq bi-nasir al-rahman wali amir al-muminin (he who trusts in the assistance of the Merciful, trustee of the Commander of the Faithful). Jalal ud-Din Firuz Shah coinage AH 689-695 (1290-1296) Goron D200 / R963, 966 / NW287-291 / T414 Jital. Year: ND [AH 689-695 (1290-1296)]. Weight: 2.50g [3.40-3.70g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 16.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: al-sultan al-a'zam jalal al-dunya wa'l din. Reverse: firuz shah (Arabic in center square). sri sultan jalaludin (in Nagari around). Mintage: N/A. Ruler: Jalal-al-Din Firuz (1290-1296). Note: Common. Many of these billion coins have a very coppery appearance. Ala ud-Din Muhammad Shah coinage AH 695-715 (1296-1316) Goron D226 / R994 / NW307-313 Silver Tanka. Year: AH 695-715 (1296-1316). Weight: 10.64g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 28.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin, but 25% rotated. Mint: Hadrat Delhi. Obverse: al-sultan al-a'zam 'ala al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar muhammad shah al-sultan. Reverse: sikandar al-thani yamin al-khilafa nasir amir al-mu'minin. Mintage: N/A. Ruler: ALA-UD-DIN Muhammad Shah Khilji (Juna Khan). Note: Very Common. Goron D232 / R987, 991 / NW324-340 / T418 Six Gani. Year: AH 703 (1304). Weight: 3.40g [3.50g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 15.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: al-sultan al-a'zam 'ala al-dunya wa'l din. Reverse: muhammad shah (in center double circles). sri sultan alavadin (in Nagari around). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Year: AH 701-705 and 711-716 (1302-1316). Ruler: ALA-UD-DIN Muhammad Shah Khilji (Juna Khan). Note: Very Common. Same as above coin, but has larger legends on both sides. Year: AH 713 (1313). Weight: 3.36 [3.50g]. Diameter: 16.50 mm. Alignment: Rotated. Goron D233 / R895, 990 / NW342-359 / T419 Two Gani. Year: N/A (1297-1316). Weight: 2.63g [3.50g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 16.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: al-sultan al-a'zam 'ala al-dunya wa'l din. Reverse: muhammad shah (in center double circles). sri sultan alavadin (in Nagari around). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 696-711 and 716 (1297-1311 and 1316). Ruler: ALA-UD-DIN Muhammad Shah Khilji (Juna Khan). Note: Very Common. Dates are in Nagari language. Light-weight specimens of this type are probably contemporary forgeries. Qutb ud-Din Mubarak Shah coinage AH 716-720 (1316-1320) Goron D271 / R1023 / NW379-387 / T422 Billion 8 Gani. Year: AH 718 (1318). Weight: 3.50g [3.50-3.70g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: Square; 14.00 mm x 14.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal, but rotated. Mint: N/A. Obverse: qutb al-dunya wa'l din (in center). abu'l muzaffar khalifat Allah (around). Reverse: sikandar al-thani yamin al-khilafa nasir amir al-mu'minin. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 718-720 (1318-1320). Ruler: Qutb Al-Din Mubarak (1316-1320). Note: Common. Same as above coin, but having less and large legends. It has reduced weight and contains more brass contents. Year: AH 718 (1318). Weight: 2.90g. Metal: Billion. Diameter: Square; 14.50 mm x 14.50 mm. Note: This coin has very coppery appearance. Same as above coin, having larger legends. Year: AH 719 (1319). Weight: 3.36g. Metal: Billion. Diameter: Square; 13.50 mm x 14.00 mm. Goron D273 / R1013 / NW390-393 / T425 Four Gani. Year: AH 716 (1316). Weight: 3.38g [3.60-3.70g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 15.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: N/A. Obverse: al-sultan al-azam qutb al-dunya wa'l din. Reverse: abu'l muzaffar mubarak shah al-sultan. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type. Ruler: Qutb Al-Din Mubarak (1316-1320). Note: Very Common. Same as above coin, having variation in legends. Weight: 3.25g [3.60-3.70g]. Diameter: 15.00 mm. Goron D276 / R1021 / NW413-415 / T424 Four Gani. Year: AH 720 (1320). Weight: 3.55g [3.60-3.70g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: Square; 16.00 mm x 14.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: N/A. Obverse: al-imam al-azam qutb al-dunya wa'l din. Reverse: khalifat Allah mubarak shah al-sultan ibn al-sultan. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 718-720 (1318-1320). Ruler: Qutb Al-Din Mubarak (1316-1320). Note: Common. Nasir ud-Din Khusrau coinage: AH 720 (1320) Goron D296 / R1053, R1057 / NW426-429 / T434 Billion Two Gani. Year: AH 720 (1320). Weight: 3.56g. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 15.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin, but rotated 20%. Mint: N/A. Obverse: al-sultan al-a'zam nasir al-dunya wa'l din. Reverse: khusra shah (in center). al-sultan wali amir al-muminin (around). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type. Ruler: Nasir-ud-Din KHUSRAU SHAH (1320). Note: Scarce. TUGHLUQID Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq Shah I [Ghazi Malik].....08 Sep 1320 - Feb 1325 Towards the end of his reign Alauddin Khilji had prepared an expedition of 10,000 men under Ghazi Malik to go to Debalpur to fight against the Chagatai Khanate Mongols. Ghazi Malik was thus enabled to go and secure Multan, Uch and Sindh for himself, especially as Alauddín Khilji’s sons proved incapable and caused confusion in the affairs of the kingdom, which ultimately took away the kingdom from the possession of the house of Khiljí. Alauddin Khilji’s son Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah, allegedly, a mad man, was removed from the throne of Delhi by Khusrau Khan. In 1320, the nobles, the troops, the learned men, the Syeds and other subjects united in selecting Ghazi Malik for the vacant post as Tughluq Shah, ruler of Delhi. Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq proceeded from Multan to Delhi, the tribe of Soomro revolted and took possession of Thatta. Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq appointed Tajuddin Malik as governor of Multan and Khwájah Khatír as governor of Bhakkar and he left 'Malik Ali Sher in charge of Sehwan. In 1323 he appointed his son Muhammad Shah his heir and successor and took a written promise or agreement to the arrangement from the ministers and nobles of the state. In AH 720 he died of heat apoplexy. He was the Turkic slave of Balban. Tughluq Shah has produced coins in gold, silver, billion and copper. Muhammad Shah II [Fakhr al-Din Malik] S/o Tughluq......1325 - 20 Mar 1351 He is also known as Prince Fakhr Malik, Jauna Khan and Ulugh Khan. Muhammad Tughlug was a scholar versed in logic, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and physical sciences. He had knowledge of medicine and was skillful in dialectics. He was also a calligrapher. Muhammad bin Tughluq is known for his active interest in experimenting with coinage. He memorialized himself and his activities through his coinage and produced more gold coins than had his predecessors. The coins boasted fine calligraphy. He issued a number of fractional denominations. The large influx of gold from his plundering of south Indian campaign led him to increase coinage weights. He enlarged the gold dinar from 172 grains to 202 grains. He introduced a silver coin, the adlis, which was discontinued after seven years due to lack of popularity and acceptance among his subjects. All his coins reflect a staunch religiosity, with such inscriptions as "The warrior in the cause of God", "The trustier in support of the four Khalifs - Abubakkar, Umar, Usman and Ali". The kalimah appeared in most of his coinage. Both at Delhi and at Daulatabad coins were minted in memory of his late father and also on Abbasid caliphs al-Mustakfi I and al-Hakim II. There were also mints at Lakhnauti, Salgaun, Darul-I-Islam, Sultanpur (Warrangal), Tughlaqpur (Tirhut), and Mulk-I-Tilang. More than thirty varieties of billion coins are known so far, and the types show his numismatic interests. Tughluq had two scalable versions, issued in Delhi and Daulatabad. The currency obeyed two different standards, probably to satisfy the local standard which preexisted in the North and in the South respectively. Tughluq's skill in forcing the two standards of currency is remarkable. He engraved "He who obeys the Sultan obeys the compassionate" to fascinate people in accepting the new coinage. Inscriptions were even engraved in the Nagari legend, but owing to the alloy used, the coinage underwent deterioration. As well, the copper and brass coins could easily be forged, turning every house into a mint. Tughluq subsequently withdrew the forged currency by exchanging it with bulls and gold. He issued complex and innovative coins of the whole Delhi series. His coins were struck at various number of mints, reflecting the extent of his conquests. Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud ibn Muhammad...........................a few days in Mar. 1351 On the death of Muhammad bin Tughluq, Firuz Tughluq was accepted as the next ruler by the army in Sind. In Delhi, Khawaja-i-Jahan, unware of this, raised to the throne, a would-be son of the late king, with the name Mahmud. When Firuz returned to Delhi, Mahmud was set aside. During this brief period, coins were struck in Mahmud's name in gold, silver and billion. The gold Tankas turn up surprisingly often but other coins are extremely rare. Ruler's title: yamin amir al-muminin ghiyath al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar mahmud shah bin muhamad shah bin tughluq shah al-sultan. Firuz Shah S/o Rajab Sipah Salar.....................1351 - 20 Sep 1388 His father's name was Rajab (the younger brother of Ghazi Malik). Firuz Shah Tughlaq succeeded his cousin Muhammad bin Tughluq following the later's death from a fatal illness, but due to widespread unrest Firuz's realm was much smaller than Muhammed's. Firuz Shah Tughlaq was forced by rebellions to concede virtual independence to Bengal and other provinces. He was known as an iconoclast. In the 1350s, he established the city of Firozabad at the site of the Feroz Shah Kotla (Literally fortress or citadel of Firoz Shah). Most of the city was destroyed as subsequent rulers dismantled its buildings and reused the spolia as building materials. Firuz's billion and copper coins were so popular that they continued to be struck long after his death with posthumous date especially from Delhi (Hadrat and Dar al-Mulk). There is also a rare billion issue with the mint name Sahat-i-Sind as Firuz made two expeditions to Sind. Fath Khan S/o Firuz Shah (at Jaunpur)........................1360 In AH760, Fath Khan was invested with the insignia of royalty by his father Firuz Shah and allowed to strike coins in his own name. His domain was the eastern province of the sultanate, the iqlim al-sharq, which later became the independent sultanate of Jaunpur. Muhammad Shah S/o Firuz Shah (regent).................1387 - 1388 Because of his increasing infirmity, Firuz made his son, Muhammad as regent in AH 789 and evidently allowed him to issue coins bearing both names. When Firuz died in the following year, the succession went to Tughluq Shah, the son of his eldest son Fath Khan. Muhammad bin Firuz retired to Nagarkot. Billion and copper coins were issued in joint names as Firuz shah and Muhammad Shah during 1387-1388.. Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq Shah II S/o Fath Khan..........1388 - 14 Mar 1389 He succeeded Firuz Shah Tughluq, immediately after his death. However, Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluq II was not a capable ruler, and failed to successfully manage and control his empire. He was eventually murdered on March 14, 1389 and succeeded by Abu Baker. Even so, none of the successors were strong leaders, and the Tughlaq Dynasty eventually came to its end in 1398. Despite his short reign, the coinage of Tughluq II is quite diverse. None of his coins are common. A few gold coins are known, the remainder being billion and copper. Firuz Shah Zafar Khan S/o Firuz Shah.........................1389 Ruled in AH 791. As with the pervious ruler coinage, it consists of rare gold issue, various billion issues (mostly rare) and copper coins. Abu Bakr Shah S/o Firuz Shah Zafar Khan...............1389 - 31 Aug 1390 However, Nasir ud din Muhammad Shah III S/o Firuz Shah, also desired to be ruler as he had been serving as regent in 1387-1388. He struggled against Abu Baker over the control of the throne. Eventually Abu Baker was defeated, and Nasir ud din Muhammad Shah III succeeded him as king. Gold, billion and copper coins are known on his name. During his reign coins in the name of Abu Bakar were also issued in AH 792 (1389). Nasir ud-Din Muhammad Shah III S/o Firuz Shah..31 Aug 1390 - 20 Jan 1394 Gold, billion and copper coins are known under his reign as sole ruler. He also issued coins as regent for his father from 1387 to 1388 as well. Ala al-Din Sikandar Shah I S/o Muhammad III....22 Jan 1394 - 08 Mar 1394 He was known as Humayun Khan and took the name Ala al-Din Sikandar Shah after becoming in power. Only billion and copper coins are known for this ephemeral ruler. Nasir al-Din Mahmud Shah II S/o Muhammad III...08 Mar 1394 - Feb 1413 with... The reign of Mahmud bin Muhammad was a very stormy one. In the year AH 797, a rival sultan was established in the form of Nusrat Shah. In AH 801 Delhi was sacked by Timur. Between AH 804 and 808, the effective ruler was Mulla Iqbal Khan. Mahmud struck coins in gold, silver, billion and copper. Billion coins on his name are reported from AH 797 (1394). During the reign there was also various posthumous issues of coins in the name of Firuz Tughluq, Muhammad bin Firuz and Mahmud bin Muhammad. He controlled the eastern part of the sultanate from Delhi. Nusrat Shah S/o Fath Khan.........................Jan 1395 - 1399 Grandson of Firuz Shah Tughluq, controlled the west part from Firozabad. Nusrat was a son of Fath Khan and was put forward as claimant to the throne for a period during the reign of Muhmud Shah II. This was the lowest point of the Delhi sultanate, as the two rivals watched each other from different parts of the city. Nusrat's coinage is mostly in copper with double, single and half falus. There are some gold and silver Tankas known. Ruler's title: al-wathiq bi-ta'yid al-rahmani nusrat shah al-sultan khulidat mamlakatuhu (confiding in divine support, Nusrat Shah the sultan, may his kingdom endure). Sack of Delhi by Timur; interregnum...................1399 - 1414 Mulla Iqbal Khan......................................1399 - 1414 When Timur invaded India and sacked Delhi, Mahmud Shah II made a good escape and returning until the year AH 804. During his absence and indeed after his return, the shrunken sultanate was effectively governed by Mulla Iqbal Khan. Only a single gold Tanka dated AH 802 is known on his name. Ruler's title: al-sultan al-azam abu'l mansur iqbal shah al-sultan. Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq Shah coinage AH 720-725 (1320-1325) Goron D306 / R1083 / NW434-439 Silver Tanka. Year: AH 723 (1323). Weight: 10.97g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 26.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin, but 20% rotated. Mint: Hazrat Delhi. Obverse: al-sultan al-ghazi ghiyath al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar. Reverse: tughluq shah al-sultan nasir amir al-mu'minin (in center). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 720-725 (1320-1325). Ruler: Ghiyath-ud-Din TUGHLUG SHAH. Note: Common. Goron D310 / R1081, 1079 / NW467-469 / T436 Six Gani. Year: ND (1320-1325). Weight: 3.40g. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 14.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin, but 20% rotated. Mint: N/A. Obverse: al-sultan al-azam ghiyath al-dunya wa'l din. Reverse: tughluq shah (in double circle). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type. Ruler: Ghiyath-ud-Din TUGHLUG SHAH. Note: Common. Goron D311 / R1071, 1079 / NW443-463 / T437 Four Gani. Year: AH 726 (1326). Weight: 3.53g. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 15.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin, but 20% rotated. Mint: N/A. Obverse: al-sultan al-ghazi ghiyath al-dunya wa'l din. Reverse: abu'l muzaffar tughluq shah al-sultan.. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 720-725, 726-727 (posthumous) and 715-717 (error). Ruler: Ghiyath-ud-Din TUGHLUG SHAH. Note: Very Common. Posthumous issue. Same as above coin, having variation in legends. Year: AH 727 (1327). Weight: 3.44g. Diameter: 15.50 mm. Alignment: Rotated. Posthumous issue. Muhammad Shah Tughluq coinage: AH 725-752 (1325-1351) Goron D334 / R1211 / NW483 Dinar. Year: AH 727 (1327). Weight: 12.76g. Metal: Gold. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin, but 30% rotated. Mint: Hazrat Delhi. Obverse: duriba fi zaman al-'abd al-raji rahmat allah muhammad bin tughluq (struck in the time of the servant hoping for the mercy of Allah, Muhammad bin Tughluq). Note: Rare. Reverse: la ilaha illa l-Lahi Muḥammadan rasulu l-Lahi [Kalima in center (there is no other god but Allah and Muhammad is the last messenger of Allah)]. "zuriba haza al-dinar bi-hadrat Dehli sanat sitt wa 'ishrin wa seb'mi'at" (was struck this gold coin in the honorable Dehli year seven and twenty and seven hundred) in the outer circle. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 727-729 (1327-1329). Ruler: Fakhr al-Din MUHAMMAD bin Tughluq. Goron D370 / R1134, 1164 / NW509-516 Tanka. Year: ND (1327-1342) Weight: 8.84g [8.50-9.10g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: duriba fi zaman al-'abd al-raji rahmat allah muhammad bin. Reverse: al-sultan al-said al-shahid tughluq shah and Date mostly written out. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 727-730, 732-735, 737 and 740-742 (1327 - 1342). Ruler: Fakhr al-Din MUHAMMAD bin Tughluq. Note: Common. Goron D371 / NW515-516 Tanka. Year: AH 732 (1332) Weight: 8.80g [8.50-9.10g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin, but 25% rotated. Mint: N/A. Obverse: duriba fi zaman al-'abd al-raji rahmat allah muhammad bin. Reverse: al-sultan al-said al-shahid tughluq shah and date mostly written out. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 732 and 741 (1332 and 1341). Ruler: Fakhr al-Din MUHAMMAD bin Tughluq. Note: Scarce. Note: The word "bin" on the obverse bottom left side is after Muhammad which makes it different from the above coin. Goron D373 / R1118, 1153 / NW529-535 / T441 Ten Gani. Year: AH 726 (1326). Weight: 3.57g [3.50-3.70g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 15.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin, but 5% rotated. Mint: N/A. Obverse: al-sultan al-adil. Reverse: muhammad bin tughluq shah. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 726-729 (1326-1329). Ruler: Fakhr al-Din MUHAMMAD bin Tughluq. Note: Common. Same as above coin, having variation in legends. Weight: 3.53g. Diameter: 15.50 mm. Alignment: Rotated. Goron D375 / R1152 / NW522-528 / T443 Six Gani. Year: AH 726 (1326). Weight: 3.57g [3.60g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 15.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin, but 5% rotated. Mint: N/A. Obverse: al-mujahid fi sibil allah. Reverse: muhammad bin tughluq shah. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 725-728 (1325-1328). Ruler: Fakhr al-Din MUHAMMAD bin Tughluq. Note: Common. Goron D401 / R1137 / NW585-586 Tanka. Year: AH 731-732 (1351-1352). Weight: 8.76 [9.20g]. Metal: Copper/Brass. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Takhtgah Daulatabad. Obverse: muhr shod tankah ra'ij dar rozgar bandah amidvar muhammad tughluq (sealed as a tanka current in the reign of the slave, hopeful of grace, Muhammad Tughluq). Reverse: man ata'a al-sultan fa-qad ata'a al-rahman (he who obeyed the sultan, obeyed the Merciful one). Mint and date in outer circle. Mintage: N/A. Ruler: Fakhr al-Din MUHAMMAD bin Tughluq. Note: Scarce. Goron D446 / R1173 / NW624-625 Tanka. Year: AH 748 (1348). Weight: 9.00g. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: allah al hakim bi-amr. Reverse: abu'l abbas ahmad. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 748-751 (1348-1350). Ruler: Fakhr al-Din MUHAMMAD bin Tughluq. Note: Common. Coin struck in the name of Caliph Al Hakim II. Misplaced in my collection. Goron D450 / R1172 / NW637-639 Coin of 32 rati. Year: ND [AH 725-752 (1325-1351)]. Weight: 3.50g. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 15.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: allah / al hakim / bi-amr. Reverse: ahmad / a al-abbas / bu. Mintage: N/A. Ruler: Fakhr al-Din MUHAMMAD bin Tughluq. Note: Scarce. Coin struck in the name of Caliph Al Hakim II. Misplaced in my collection. Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud ibn Muhammad coinage: AH 752 (1351) Goron D455 / R1237 / NW648 Gold Tanka. Year: AH 752 (1351). Weight: 10.97g. Metal: Gold. Diameter: 19.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal; 5% rotated. Mint: Delhi. Obverse: yamin amir al-mu'minin ghiyath al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar. Reverse: mahmud shah bin muhammad shah bin tughluq shah al-sultan. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type. Ruler: Ghiyath al-Din MAHMUD SHAH bin Muhammad Shah (Khwaja-i-Jahan). Note: Scarce. Fath Khan S/o Firuz Shah (at Jaunpur) coinage: AH 760 (1360) Goron D511 / NW750 Tanka. Year: AH 760 (1360). Weight: 8.61 [9.30g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin, but 15% rotated. Mint: N/A. Obverse: fathkhan firuz shah jall allah zillalahu jalalahu (Fath Khan Firuz Shah, May Allah glorify the shadows of his glory). Reverse: fi-zaman al-imam amir al-muminin abi abd allah khulidat khilafatuhu. Mintage: N/A. Ruler: Fath Khan S/o Firuz Shah. Note: Rare. Given royalty by his father Firuz to produce coins in iqlim al-Sharq [Jaunpur]. Citing Caliph Abu Abdullah. Goron D513 / R1293 / NW757 Coin of 32 rati. Year: AH 760 (1360). Weight: 3.16 [3.50g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 15.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin, but 45% rotated. Mint: N/A. Obverse: fathkhan firuz shah jall allah zillalahu jalalahu (Fath Khan Firuz Shah, May Allah glorify the shadows of his glory). Reverse: fi-zaman al-imam amir al-muminin abi'l fath khulidat khilafatuhu. Mintage: N/A. Ruler: Fath Khan S/o Firuz Shah. Note: Rare. Given royalty by his father Firuz to produce coins in iqlim al-Sharq [Jaunpur]. Citing Caliph Abu'l Fath al-Mutasid billah. LODI Daulat Khan............................................1413 - 28 May 1414 No coins are known on his name but there are posthumous coin dated AH 816 (1414) silver Tanka and copper falus on Mahmud bin Muhammad and bllion Tanka on Firuz Tughluq. SAYYID Sayyid Khizr Khan...............................28 May 1414 - 20 May 1421 He founded the Sayyid dynasty. But he did not take up the title of king and nominally, continued to be a Rayat-i-Ala (vassal) of the Timurids, initially of Timur and after his death, his successor Shah Rukh, grandson of Timur. No coins are known on Khidr Khan's name but posthumous dated AH 817 to AH823 coins exists. Silver Tankas on Muhammad Firuz, billion and copper coins on Firuz Tughluq. Mu'izz ud-Din Mubarak Shah II S/o Khidr Khan....20 May 1421 - 20 Jan 1434 After Mubarak Khan was killed, his nephew Muhammad Khan ascended the throne and styled himself as Sultan Muhammad Shah. During the first seven years of his reign, Mubarak did not issue any coins in his name, preferring to continue with the posthumous types of Firuz Tughluq and Muhammad bin Firuz. It is interesting to note that both the posthumous gold and silver Tankas of Muhammad bin Firuz use the title abu'l mahamid (father of laudable qualities), a title not used on his coins issued while he was still alive. Mubarak's own gold and silver Tankas are very rare. He issued no billion coins. In copper, he replaced the 40 rati falus with one of 48 rati, together with its double and half. Title on his coins: fi 'ahd al-sultan al-ghazi al-mutawakkil ala'l rahman mubarak shah sultan. The reverse of the gold Tanka has a quotation from the Qur'an: Verily we have won for thee a manifest victory (18.1). Muhammed Shah IV S/o Farid S/o Khizr Khan.............1434 - 1445 Coins were struck on his name in gold, silver, billon and copper. The standard weight for all four metals were increased slightly during his reign. At the same time there also exist falus and double falus at the old 40 rati standard, possibly for use in a particular part of the empire where the new standard was not in force. One type of falus in the name of Mubarak Shah Sayyid dated AH 838 (1435) in the beginning of Muhammad's reign is known. Title on his coins: al-sultan al-azam abu'l muhamid muhammad shah bin farid shah hadrat shah al-sultan. Just before his death, he called his son Ala-ud-Din from Badaun and nominated him as his successor. Ala ud-Din Alam Shah S/o Muhammad Shah.................1445 - 19 Apr 1451 He moved his capital from Delhi to Budaun. No gold Tankas are known on his name. A single silver Tanka, 80 and 32 rati billion coins and in copper double and single falus on 40 rati standard are known. Title on his coins: sultan ala' al-dunya wa'l din alamshah bin muhammad shah bin farid shah. Posthumous copper coins on Mubarak Shah Sayyid were struck at Dar al-Mulk Delhi dated AH 854-855 (1450-1451). At this time Alam Shah was in Budaun and had little, if any, authority in Delhi, which was under the control of two bobles, Hisham Khan and Hamid Khan. These two in due course offered the throne of Delhi to Bahlul Khan, who readily accepted and seated upon the throne. These posthumous Mubarak Shah coins were therefore probably struck in the months prior to Bahlul's accession. In some account it is noted that Ala ud-Din Alam Shah voluntarily abdicated the throne of the Delhi sultanate in favour of Bahlul Khan Lodi on April 19, 1451 and continued to live in Badaun till his death in 1478. LODI (restored) Bahlul Shah Lodi................................19 Apr 1451 - Jul 1489 He was the nephew and son-in-law of Islam Khan (Malik Sultan Shah Lodi), the governor of Sirhind (Punjab) in India and succeeded him as the governor of Sirhind during the reign of Sayyid dynasty ruler Muhammad Shah (Muhammad-bin-Farid). Muhammad Shah raised him to the status of an Amir. In 1479, Sultan Bahlul Khan Lodi defeated and annexed Sharqi dynasty based at Jaunpur. Bahlul Khan did much to stop rebellions and uprisings in his territories, and extended his holdings over Gwalior, Jaunpur and upper Uttar Pradesh. In 1486, he appointed his son, Babrak Shah as viceroy of Jaunpur. In time, this proved to be problematic, as his second son, Nizam Khan (Sikandar Lodi) was named successor, and a power struggle ensued upon his death in 1489. Only billion and copper coins were produced in his reign. An analysis of some billion tankas revealed a silver content of a round 16% and were known as bahlulis. Title on his billion coins: al-mutawakkil 'ala'l rahman bahlul shah sultan. He is also know to produce a copper coin in Jaunpur dated AH 888-894. Bahlul Shah captured Jaunpur and appointed his son Barbak Shah as governor of Jaunpur. Barbak Shah produced Double falus and single falus coins dated AH 894-896 (1489-1491). Nizam Khan Sikandar S/o Bahlul..................17 Jul 1489 - 21 Nov 1517 The second son of Bahlul, succeeded him after his death on July 17, 1489. He was nominated by his father to succeed him and was crowned as king on July 15, 1489. He refounded Agra in 1504 and constructed mosques. He abolished corn duties and patronized trade and commerce. He was a poet of repute. He composed under the pen-name of Gulruk. He was also patron of learning and ordered Sanskrit work in medicine to be translated into Persian. Sikandar Lodi tried to conquer the Gwalior Fort, and he attacked five times, but was failed all the five times by the king of Gwalior Maharaja Mansingh. He developed Agra as his second capital (after Delhi), as it took a lot of time to travel from Delhi to Gwalior. Finally he attacked a small region, near Gwalior named Narwar, and he had to wait 11 months at the gates of the Narwar fort, after 11 months when the people found that nothing had left to eat, they surrendered to Sikandar lodi. Once again he attacked on Gwalior, and was defeated by Maharaja Mansingh and his wife Mrignayani. A part from a couple of extremely rare gold and silver coins, all his coinage is of very debased billion, with a silver content of about 5%. Many coins have the appearance of copper and there may have been a good deal of contemporary forgery. Title on his coins: al-mutawakkil 'ala'l rahman sikandar shah bahlul shah sultan. Ibrahim II Shah S/o Sikandar...........................1517 - 21 Apr 1526 He was the the youngest son of Sikandar. He was a fearless military leader and kept out the opposition for almost a decade. He was engaged in warfare with the Afghans and the Mughals for most of his reign and died trying to keep the Lodi Dynasty from annihilation. He faced a number of rebellions. The Mewar ruler Rana Sanga extended his empire right up to western Uttar Pradesh and threatened to attack Agra. Daulat Khan Lodi, governor of Lahore and Alam Khan, an uncle of Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi, invited Babur, the ruler of Kabul, to invade India. Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and killed by Babur in the first Battle of Panipat on April 21, 1526. Babar made his intentions of staying here by establishing Mughal Empire and deserted both Daulat Khan and Alam Khan. Ibrahim Shah Lodi in his Delhi realms struck only billion coins of half and quarter Tankas apparently based on a 96 rati tanka standard. The quality of the coinage are however poor. Elsewhere in Malwa on the conquest of Chanderi, he struck copper and silver coins on his name in Malwa style during AH 927-932 (1521-1525). There are also two strange pieces of two grams each having Ibrahim's name on one side and Kangra rulers Prayaga Chandra and Rama Chandra on the other side. Both Kangra rulers, ruled during 1517-1527. Title on his coins: al-mutawakkil 'ala'l rahman ibrahim shah sikandar shah sultan. Mahmud S/o Sikandar (at Bihar).................................1528 Mahmud was a younger brother of Ibrahim and after the battle of Panipat in AH 932 (1526), was adopted by the remnants of Lodi faction as their leader. He was proclaimed king in Bihar in AH 935 (1528). A single extremely rare billion tanka of 80 rati (9.1g) on his name is known. Title on his coin: mahmud shah bin sikandar shah bin bahlul.... Sikandar Shah Lodi coinage: AH 894-923 (1489-1517) Goron D705 / R1518 / NW967-975 Tanka of 80 rati. Year: AH 896 (1491). Weight: 9.29 [9.40g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 17.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Hadrat Delhi. Obverse: al-mutawakkil 'ala'l rahman sikandar shah bahlul shah sultan. Reverse: fi-zaman amir al-muminin khulidat khilafatuhu. Mint: bi-hadrat delhi and date at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 894-909 (1489-1503). Ruler: Sikandar Lodi S/o Bahlul (1489-1517). Note: Very Common. Goron D706 / R1519 / NW984-1003 issued in AH 900-922 has angular style and no mint name (also Very Common type). Same as above coin, but has different legend style. Year: AH 901 (1496). Weight: 9.09 [9.40g]. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Alignment: Coin, but 75% rotated. Same as above coin, but has different legend style. Year: AH 903 (1498). Weight: 8.37 [9.40g]. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Alignment: Coin, but 25% rotated. Same as above coin, but has different legend style. Year: AH 906 (1501). Weight: 8.79 [9.40g]. Diameter: 18.00 mm. Alignment: Medal, but 5% rotated. Ibrahim Shah Lodi coinage: AH 923-932 (1517-1526) Goron D713 / R1547 / NW1020-1027 Quarter Tanka. Year: AH 925-928 (1519-1522). Weight: 2.79 [2.50 - 2.80g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 12.30 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Hadrat Delhi. Obverse: al-mutawakkil 'ala'l rahman ibrahim shah sikandar shah sultan. Reverse: fi-zaman amir al-muminin khulidat khilafatuhu. Date at the bottom. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 925-928 (1519-1522). Ruler: Ibrahim Shah Lodi S/o Sikandar (1517-1526).